Schema Evolution

Recent advances in schema and ontology evolution

Authors: 
Hartung, M.; Terwilliger, J.; Rahm, E.
Year: 
2011
Venue: 
Schema Matching and Mapping

Schema evolution is the increasingly important ability to adapt deployed schemas to changing requirements. Effective support for schema evolution is challenging since schema changes may have to be propagated, correctly and efficiently, to instance data and dependent schemas, mappings, or applications.

Evolution of XML schemas and documents from stereotyped UML class models: A traceable approach

Authors: 
Dominguez, Eladio; Lloret, Jorge; Perez, Beatriz; Rodriguez, Aurea; Rubio, Angel Luis; Zapata, Maria Antonia
Year: 
2011
Venue: 
Information and ...

Context
UML and XML are two of the most commonly used languages in software engineering processes. One of the most critical of these processes is that of model evolution and maintenance. More specifically, when an XML schema is modified, the changes should be propagated to the corresponding XML documents, which must conform with the new, modified schema.
Objective

Stones Falling in Water: When and How to Restructure a View–Based Relational Database

Authors: 
Dominguez, Eladio; Lloret, Jorge; Rubio, Angel Luis; Zapata, Maria Antonia
Year: 
2010
Venue: 
Advances in Databases and ...

Nowadays, one of the most important problems of software engineering continues to be the maintenance of both databases and applications. It is clear that any method that can reduce the impact that database modifications produce on application programs is valuable for software engineering processes. We have proposed such a method, by means of a database evolution architecture (MeDEA) that makes use of database views. By using views, changes in the structure of the database schema can be delayed until absolutely necessary. However, some conditions oblige modifications to be made.

Update Rewriting and Integrity Constraint Maintenance in a Schema Evolution Support System: PRISM++

Authors: 
Curino, Carlo; Moon, Hyun J.; Deutsch, Alin; Zaniolo, Carlo
Year: 
2011
Venue: 
PVLDB

Supporting legacy applications when the database schema evolves represents a long-standing challenge of practical and theoretical importance. Recent work has produced algorithms and systems that automate the process of data migration and query adaptation; how- ever, the problems of evolving integrity constraints and supporting legacy updates under schema and integrity constraints evolution are significantly more difficult and have thus far remained unsolved.

A formal model for temporal schema versioning in object-oriented databases

Authors: 
Grandi, Fabio; Mandreoli, Federica
Year: 
2003
Venue: 
Data & Knowledge Engineering

In this paper we present a formal model for the support of temporal schema versions in object-oriented databases. Its definition is partially based on a generic (ODMG compatible) object model and partially introduces new concepts. The proposed model supports all the schema changes which are usually considered in the OODB literature, for which an operational semantics and a formal analysis of their correct behaviour is provided.

HECATAEUS: Regulating Schema Evolution

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Vassiliadis, P.; Simitsis, A.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2010

HECATAEUS is an open-source software tool for enabling impact prediction, what-if analysis, and regulation of relational database schema evolution. We follow a graph theoretic approach and represent database schemas and database constructs, like queries and views, as graphs. Our tool enables the user to create hypothetical evolution events and examine their impact over the overall graph before these are actually enforced on it.

Scalable Architecture and Query Optimization for Transaction-time DBs with Evolving Schemas

Authors: 
Moon, Hyun J.; Curino, Carlo; Zaniolo, Carlo
Year: 
2010
Venue: 
SIGMOD

The problem of archiving and querying the history of a database is made more complex by the fact that, along with the database content, the database schema also evolves with time.

Toward Formal Semantics for Data and Schema Evolution in Data Stream Management Systems

Authors: 
Fernández-Moctezuma, Rafael J.; Terwilliger, James F.; Delcambre, Lois M. L.; Maier, David
Year: 
2009
Venue: 
Proc. ER 2009 workshops, LNCS 5833

Data Stream Management Systems (DSMSs) do not statically respond to issued queries — rather, they continuously produce result streams to standing queries, and often operate in a context where any interruption can lead to data loss. Support for schema evolution in continuous query processing is currently unaddressed. In this work we address evolution in DSMSs by proposing semantics for three evolution primitives: Add Attribute and Drop Attribute (schema evolution), and Alter Data (data evolution).

Automating Database Schema Evolution in Information System Upgrades

Authors: 
Curino, Carlo; Moon, Hyun J.; Zaniolo, Carlo
Year: 
2009
Venue: 
Hot Topics In Software Upgrade

The complexity, cost, and down-time currently created by the database schema evolution process is the source of incessant problems in the life of information systems and a major stumbling block that prevent graceful upgrades. Furthermore, our studies shows that the serious problems encountered by traditional information systems are now further exacerbated in web information systems and cooperative scientific databases where the frequency of schema changes has increased while tolerance for downtimes has nearly disappeared.

Management of Evolving Semantic Grid Metadata Within a Collaborative Platform

Authors: 
Hartung, M; Loebe, F; Herre, H; Rahm, E
Year: 
2009
Venue: 
Information Sciences

Grid environments, providing distributed infrastructures, computing resources and data storage, usually show a high degree of heterogeneity and change in their metadata. We propose a platform for collaborative management and maintenance of common metadata for grids. As the conceptual foundation of this platform, a meta model is presented which distinguishes structured descriptions and classification structures that both are modifiable.

Policy-regulated Management of ETL Evolution

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Vassiliadis, P.; Simitsis, A.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2009
Venue: 
Journal on Data Semantics (JoDS), Special issue on "Semantic Data Warehouses" (JoDS XIII), LNCS 5530, pp. 146-176, 2009, Springer

In this paper, we discuss the problem of performing impact prediction for changes that occur in the schema/structure of the data warehouse sources. We abstract Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) activities as queries and sequences of views. ETL activities and its sources are uniformly modeled as a graph that is annotated with policies for the management of evolution events. Given a change at an element of the graph, our method detects the parts of the graph that are affected by this change and highlights the way they are tuned to respond to it.

Rule-based Management of Schema Changes at ETL sources

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Vassiliadis, P.; Simitsis, A.; Sellis, T.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2009
Venue: 
Workshop on Managing Evolution of Data Warehouses (MEDWa 2009)

In this paper, we visit the problem of the management of inconsistencies emerging on ETL processes as results of evolution operations occurring at their sources. We abstract Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) activities as queries and sequences of views. ETL activities and its sources are uniformly modeled as a graph that is annotated with rules for the management of evolution events. Given a change at an element of the graph, our framework detects the parts of the graph that are affected by this change and highlights the way they are tuned to respond to it.

Fuzzy Constraint-based Schema Matching Formulation.

Authors: 
Algergawy, Alsayed; Schallehn, Eike; Saake, Gunter
Year: 
2008
Venue: 
11th BIS conference' Workshop, 1st Workshop on Advances in Accessing Deep Web (ADW 2008), Innsbruck, Austria 5-7 May 2008. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 333, pages 141-152

The deep Web has many challenges to be solved. Among them is schema matching. In this paper, we build a conceptual connection between the schema matching problem SMP and the fuzzy constraint optimization problem FCOP. In particular, we propose the use of the fuzzy constraint optimization problem as a framework to model and formalize the schema matching problem. By formalizing the SMP as a FCOP, we gain many benefits. First, we could express it as a combinatorial optimization problem with a set of soft constraints which are able to cope with uncertainty in schema matching.

Design Metrics for Data Warehouse Evolution

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Vassiliadis, P.; Simitsis, A.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2008
Venue: 
ER 2008

During data warehouse design, the designer frequently encounters the problem of choosing among different alternatives for the same design construct. The behavior of the chosen design in the presence of evolution events is an important parameter for this choice. This paper proposes metrics to assess the quality of the warehouse design from the viewpoint of evolution. We employ a graph-based model to uniformly abstract relations and software modules, like queries, views, reports, and ETL activities. We annotate the warehouse graph with policies for the management of evolution events.

Language Extensions for the Automation of Database Schema Evolution

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Vassiliadis, P.; Simitsis, A.; Aggistalis, K.; Pechlivani, F.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2008
Venue: 
ICEIS 2008

The administrators and designers of modern Information Systems face the problem of maintaining their systems in the presence of frequently occurring changes in any counterpart of it. In other words, when a change occurs in any point of the system –e.g., source, schema, view, software construct– they should propagate the change in all the involved parts of the system.

Hecataeus: A What-If Analysis Tool for Database Schema Evolution

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Anagnostou, F.; Vassiliadis, P.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2008
Venue: 
CSMR 2008

Databases are continuously evolving environments, where design constructs are added, removed or updated rather often. Small changes in the database configurations might impact a large number of applications and data stores around the system: queries and data entry forms can be invalidated, application programs might crash. HECATAEUS is a tool, which represents the database schema along with its dependent workload, mainly queries and views, as a uniform directed graph.

Management of the Evolution of Database-Centric Information Systems

Authors: 
Vassiliadis, P.; Papastefanatos, G.; Sellis, T.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2007
Venue: 
In International Workshop on Database Preservation (PresDB 07)

Adaptive Query Formulation to Handle Database Evolution

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Vassiliadis, P.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2006
Venue: 
CAiSE Forum 2006

Databases are continuously evolving environments, where design constructs are added, removed or updated rather often. Research has extensively dealt with the problem of database evolution. Nevertheless, problems arise with existing queries and applications, mainly due to the fact that, in most cases, their role as integral parts of the environment is not given the proper attention. Furthermore, the queries are not designed to handle database evolution. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based model that uniformly captures relations, views, constraints and queries.

Hecataeus: A Framework for Representing SQL Constructs as Graphs

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Kyzirakos, K; Vassiliadis, P.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2005
Venue: 
In 10th International Workshop on Exploring Modeling Methods for Systems Analysis and Design - EMMSAD '05 (in conjunction with CAISE'05)

Traditional modeling techniques typically focus on the static part of databases and ignore their dynamic part (e.g., queries or data-centric workflows). In this paper, we first introduce and sketch a graph-based model that that uniformly captures relations, views, constraints and queries. We then present Hecataeus, a tool for implementing and visualizing the above framework

PRIMA: Archiving and Querying Historical Data with Evolving Schemas

Authors: 
Moon, Hyun J.; Curino, Carlo A.; MyungWon, Ham; Zaniolo, Carlo
Year: 
2009
Venue: 
SIGMOD

Schema evolution poses serious challenges in historical data management. Traditionally the archival data has been (i) either migrated under the current schema version, to ease querying, but compromising archival quality, or (ii) maintained under the original schema version in which they firstly appeared, leading to a perfect archival quality, but to a taxing query interface.

Requirements Ontology and Multi-representation Strategy for Database Schema Evolution

Authors: 
Bounif, Hassina, Spaccapietra, Stefano; Pottinger, Rachel
Year: 
2007
Venue: 
LNCS 623

With the emergence of enterprise-wide information systems, ontologies have become by definition a valuable aid for efficient database schema modeling and integration, in addition to their use in other disciplines such as the semantic web and natural language processing. This paper presents another important utilization of ontologies in database schemas: schema evolution. Specifically, our research concentrates on a new three-layered approach for schema evolution.

The PRISM Workwench: Database Schema Evolution Without Tears

Authors: 
Curino, Carlo A.; Moon, Hyun J.; Ham, MyungWon; Zaniolo, Carlo
Year: 
2009
Venue: 
ICDE 2009

DEMO PAPER:

Managing and querying transaction-time databases under schema evolution

Authors: 
Moon, Hyun J.; Curino, Carlo A.; Deutsch, Alin; Hou, Chien-Yi; Zaniolo, Carlo
Year: 
2008
Venue: 
VLDB

The old problem of managing the history of database information is now made more urgent and complex by fast-spreading web information systems. Indeed, systems such as Wikipedia are faced with the challenge of managing the history of their databases in the face of intense database schema evolution. Our PRIMA system addresses this difficult problem by introducing two key pieces of new technology.

What-If Analysis for Data Warehouse Evolution

Authors: 
Papastefanatos, G.; Vassiliadis, P.; Simitsis, A.; Vassiliou, Y.
Year: 
2007
Venue: 
DaWaK 2007

In this paper, we deal with the problem of performing what-if analysis for changes that occur in the schema/structure of the data warehouse sources. We abstract software modules, queries, reports and views as (sequences of) queries in SQL enriched with functions. Queries and relations are uniformly modeled as a graph that is annotated with policies for the management of evolution events. Given a change at an element of the graph, our method detects the parts of the graph that are affected by this change and indicates the way they are tuned to respond to it.

Data Reverse Engineering using System Dependency Graphs

Authors: 
Cleve, A; Henrard, J.; Hainaut, JL;
Year: 
2006
Venue: 
Proceedings of the 13th Working Conference on Reverse Engineering (WCRE 2006)

Data reverse engineering (DRE) is a complex and costly process that requires a deep understanding of large dataintensive software systems. This process can be made easier with the use of program understanding methods and tools. In this paper, we focus on the program slicing technique and we show how it can be adapted to support DRE. We present a DML-independent SDG construction approach involving the analysis of database operations as a first stage. We describe a tool based upon this approach and we report on two industrial DRE projects.

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