Journal

Reverse engineering of relational databases: Extraction of an EER model from a relational database

Authors: 
Chiang, RHL; Barron, TM; Storey, VC
Year: 
1994
Venue: 
Data and Knowledge Engineering, 1994

A methodology for extracting an extended Entity-Relationship (EER) model from a relational database is presented. Through a combination of data schema and data instance analysis, an EER model is derived which is semantically richer and more comprehensible for maintenance and design purposes than the original database. Classification schemes for relations and attributes necessary for the EER model extraction are derived and justified. These have been demonstrated to be implementable in a knowledge-based system; a working prototype system which does so is briefly discussed.

The PROMPT suite: interactive tools for ontology merging and mapping

Authors: 
Noy, N.F.; Musen, M.A.
Year: 
2003
Venue: 
International Journal of Human-Computer Studies

Researchers in the ontology-design field have developed the content for ontologies in many domain areas. This distributed nature of ontology development has led to a large number of ontologies covering overlapping domains. In order for these ontologies to be reused, they first need to be merged or aligned to one another. We developed a suite of tools for managing multiple ontologies. These suite provides users with a uniform framework for comparing, aligning, and merging ontologies, maintaining versions, translating between different formalisms.

Ontology Matching: A Machine Learning Approach

Authors: 
Doan, AnHai; Madhavan, Jayant; Domingos, Pedro; Halevy, Alon
Year: 
2004
Venue: 
Handbook on Ontologies in Information Systems

This chapter studies ontology matching: the problem of finding the seman-
tic mappings between two given ontologies. This problem lies at the heart of
numerous information processing applications. Virtually any application that
involves multiple ontologies must establish semantic mappings among them,
to ensure interoperability. Examples of such applications arise in myriad do-
mains, including e-commerce, knowledge management, e-learning, information
extraction, bio-informatics, web services, and tourism (see Part D of this book
on ontology applications).

Semantic Problems of Thesaurus Mapping

Authors: 
Doerr, M.
Year: 
2001
Venue: 
Journal of Digital Information, 2001

With networked information access to heterogeneous data sources, the problem of terminology provision and interoperability of controlled vocabulary schemes such as thesauri becomes increasingly urgent. Solutions are needed to improve the performance of full-text retrieval systems and to guide the design of controlled terminology schemes for use in structured data, including metadata. Thesauri are created in different languages, with different scope and points of view and at different levels of abstraction and detail, to accommodate access to a specific group of collections.

Semantic matching

Authors: 
Giunchiglia, F.; Shvaiko, P.
Year: 
2003
Venue: 
The Knowledge Engineering Review Journal, 2003

DIKE: a system supporting the semi-automatic construction of cooperative information systems from heterogeneous databases

Authors: 
Palopoli, L.; Terracina, G.; Ursino, D.
Year: 
2003
Venue: 
Software: Practice and Experience, 2003

Managing Uncertainty in Schema Matching with Top-K Schema Mappings

Authors: 
Gal, A.
Year: 
2006
Venue: 
Journal on Data Semantics, 2006

. In this paper, we propose to extend current practice in schema matching with the simultaneous use of top-K schema mappings rather than a single best mapping. This is a natural extension of existing methods (which can be considered to fall into the top-1 category), taking into account the imprecision inherent in the schema matching process. The essence of this method is the simultaneous generation and examination of K best schema mappings to identify useful mappings.

Towards Automatic Merging of Domain Ontologies: The HCONE-merge approach

Authors: 
Kotis, K.; Vouros, G. A.; Stergiou, K.
Year: 
2006
Venue: 
Journal of Web Semantics, 2006

Latest research efforts on the semi-automatic coordination of ontologies “touch” on the mapping /merging of ontologies using the whole breadth of available knowledge. Addressing this issue, this paper presents the HCONE-merge approach, which is further extended towards automating the merging process. HCONE-merge makes use of the intended informal meaning of concepts by mapping them to WordNet senses using the Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) method.

A Theory of Attributed Equivalence in Databases with Application to Schema Integration

Authors: 
Larson, J. A.; Navathe, S. B.; Elmasri, R.
Year: 
1989
Venue: 
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 1989

The authors present a common foundation for integrating pairs of entity sets, pairs of relationship sets, and an entity set with a relationship set. This common foundation is based on the basic principle of integrating attributes. Any pair of objects whose identifying attributes can be integrated can themselves be integrated. Several definitions of attribute equivalence are presented. These definitions can be used to specify the exact nature of the relationship between a pair of attributes. Based on these definitions, several strategies for attribute integration are presented and evaluated.

A Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Database Schema Integration

Authors: 
Batini, C.; Lenzerini, M.; Navathe, S. B.
Year: 
1986
Venue: 
ACM Computing Surveys, 1986

One of the fundamental principles of the database approach is that a database allows a
nonredundant, unified representation of all data managed in an organization. This is
achieved only when methodologies are available to support integration across
organizational and application boundaries.
Methodologies for database design usually perform the design activity by separately
producing several schemas, representing parts of the application, which are subsequently
merged. Database schema integration is the activity of integrating the schemas of existing

Transforming Heterogeneous Data with Database Middleware: Beyond Integration

Authors: 
Haas, Laura M.; Miller, Renee J.; Niswonger, B.; Tork Roth, Mary; Schwarz, Peter M.; Wimmers, Edward L.
Year: 
1999
Venue: 
IEEE Data Eng. Bull. 22(1): 31-36 (1999)

Database middleware systems integrate data from multiple sources.
To be effective, such systemsmust provide a unified, queryable schema, and must be able to transform data from different sources to conform to this schema when queries against the schema are issued. The power of their query engines and their ability to connect to several information sources makes them a natural base for doing

Semantics of Database Transformations

Authors: 
Davidson, Susan; Buneman, Peter; Kosky, Anthony
Year: 
1998
Venue: 
LNCS 1358, 1998

Database transformations arise in many different settings including
database integration, evolution of database systems, and implementing user views
and data entry tools. This paper surveys approaches that have been taken to problems in these settings, assesses their strengths and weaknessesd
develops requirements on a formal model for specifying and implementing database transformations. We also consider the problem of insuring the correctness of database transforma
tions
In particular, we demonstrate that the usefulness of correctness conditions

Schema evolution in data warehouses

Authors: 
Bellahsene, Z.
Year: 
2002
Venue: 
Knowledge and Information Systems. Vol. 4(3), 2002

In this paper, we address the issues related to the evolution and maintenance of data warehousing systems, when underlying data sources change their schema capabilities. These changes can invalidate views at the data warehousing system. We present an approach for dynamically adapting views according to schema changes arising on source relations. This type of maintenance concerns both the schema and the data of the data warehouse. The main issue is to avoid the view recomputation from scratch especially when views are defined from multiple sources.

Schema Evolution and the Relational Algebra

Authors: 
McKenzie, L.E.; Snodgrass, R.T.
Year: 
1990
Venue: 
Inf. Syst. 15(2): 207-232 (1990)

The authors discuss extensions to the conventional relational algebra to support both aspects of transaction time, evolution of a database's contents and evolution of a database's schema. They define a relation's schema to be the relation's temporal signature, a function mapping the relation's attribute names onto their value domains, and class, indicating the extent of support for time. They also introduce commands to change a relation, now defined as a triple consisting of a sequence of classes, a sequence of signatures, and a sequence of states.

Types of software evolution and software maintenance

Authors: 
Chapin, N.; Hale, J.E.; Khan, K.M.; Ramil, J.F.; Tan, W.
Year: 
2001
Venue: 
Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice Volume 13, Issue 1 , Pages 3 - 30, February 2001

The past two decades have seen increasing sophistication in software work. Now and in the future, the work of both practitioners and researchers would be helped by a more objective and finer granularity recognition of types of software evolution and software maintenance activities as actually done. To these ends, this paper proposes a clarifying redefinition of the types of software evolution and software maintenance.

Object-Oriented Software Evolution

Authors: 
Lieberherr, Karl J.; Xiao, Cun
Year: 
1993
Venue: 
IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 19(4): 313-343 (1993)

The authors review propagation patterns for describing object-oriented software at a higher level of abstraction than one used by today's programming languages. A propagation pattern defines a family of programs from which one can select a member by giving a class dictionary graph that details the structure of behavior through part-of and inheritance relationships between classes. Three concepts are introduced: evolution histories, growth-plans and a propagation-directive calculus.

Inheritance of Workflows An approach to tackling problems related to change

Authors: 
van der Aalst, Wil M.P.; Basten, T.
Year: 
2002
Venue: 
Journal of Theoretical Computer Science, 2002

Inheritance is one of the key issues of object-orientation. The inheritance mechanism allows for the definition of a subclass which inherits the features of a specific superclass. When adapting a workflow process definition to specific needs (ad-hoc change) or changing the structure of the workflow process as a result of reengineering efforts (evolutionary change), inheritance concepts are useful to check whether the new workflow process inherits some desirable properties of the old workflow process.

Effiziente Verträglichkeitsprfung und automatische Migration von Workflow-Instanzen bei der Evolution von Workflow-Schemata

Authors: 
Rinderle, S.; Reichert, M.; Dadam, Peter
Year: 
2002
Venue: 
Informatik - Forschung und Entwicklung, Band 17, 2002, Seite 177-197

Sollen Workflow-Management-Systeme (WfMS) in umfassender Weise fur die rechnerbasierte Verwaltung und Steuerung von Geschftsprozessen einsetzbar sein, mssen die von ihnen verwalteten Workflow-Schemata und -Instanzen bei Bedarf rasch anpassbar sein. Dabei mssen die auf Basis eines (alten) Workflow-Schemas erzeugten Instanzen auch nach dessen nderung ungestrt weiterlaufen knnen, etwa durch Bereitstellung geeigneter Versionskonzepte.

A Transparent Schema-Evolution System Based on Object-Oriented View Technology

Authors: 
Ra, Y.; Rundensteiner, E.
Year: 
1997
Venue: 
IEEE Trans.Knowledge and Data Engineering

When a database is shared by many users, updates to the database schema are almost always prohibited because there is a risk of making existing application programs obsolete when they run against the modified schema. This paper addresses the problem by integrating schema evolution with view facilities. When new requirements necessitate schema updates for a particular user, then the user specifies schema changes to his personal view, rather than to the shared-base schema.

Managing Multiple Ontologies and Ontology Evolution in Ontologging.

Authors: 
Maedche, A.; Motik, B.; Stojanovic, L.; Studer, R.; Volz, R.
Year: 
2002
Venue: 
Intelligent Information Processing 2002: 51-63

Ontologging is an ontology-driven environment to enable next generation
knowledge management applications building on Semantic Web
technology. In this paper we first present the conceptual architecture
underlying Ontologging. Second, we focus on two important challenges for
ontology-based knowledge management, namely the supporting multiple
ontologies and managing ontology evolution. We will provide a general
approach for handling these two essential issues within the Ontologging
architecture.

Maintaining Data Warehouses over Changing Information Sources.

Authors: 
Rundensteiner, Elke A.; Koeller, Andreas; Zhang, Xin
Year: 
2000
Venue: 
Commun. ACM 43(6): 57-62 (2000)

One core feature of EVE is Evolvable-SQL (ESQL),
an extension of SQL that allows the view
definer to express preferences for view evolution. Using
E-SQL, a user defining a view can specify what information
is indispensable, what information is replaceable
by similar information from other ISs, and
whether a changing view extent is acceptable. This is
done by attaching preference parameters to elements
of the view query. This then is the key to evolving a
view by rewriting its view definition into a possibly
non-equivalent one that still preserves the user’s
intended semantics.

A Survey of Schema Versioning Issues for Database Systems

Authors: 
Roddick, J.F.
Year: 
1995
Venue: 
Information and Software Technology, 37(7):383393, 1995. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/roddick95survey.html

Schema versioning is one of a number of related areas dealing with the same general problem - that
of using multiple heterogeneous schemata for various database related tasks. In particular, schema
versioning, and its weaker companion, schema evolution, deal with the need to retain current data
and software system functionality in the face of changing database structure. Schema versioning
and schema evolution offer a solution to the problem by enabling intelligent handling of any
temporal mismatch between data and data structure. This survey discusses the modelling,

Ontology Versioning in an Ontology Management Framework

Authors: 
Noy, Natalya Fridman; Musen, Mark A.
Year: 
2004
Venue: 
IEEE Intelligent Systems 19(4): 6-13 (2004)

Ontology Evolution: Not the Same as Schema Evolution

Authors: 
Noy, N. Fridman; Klein, M. C. A.
Year: 
2004
Venue: 
Knowl. Inf. Syst. 6(4): 428-440 (2004)

As ontology development becomes a more ubiquitous and collaborative process, ontology
versioning and evolution becomes an important area of ontology research. The many similarities
between database-schema evolution and ontology evolution will allow us to build on the
extensive research in schema evolution. However, there are also important differences between
database schemas and ontologies. The differences stem from different usage paradigms, the
presence of explicit semantics, and different knowledge models. A lot of problems that existed

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